Dr. Christoph Caesar - Inventor

Sub-Structure of the Electron

Updated April. 1st, 2023

To date, no detailed accepted theory or model of the electron itself is established. What is known is a variety of properties, each standing alone in a table of elementary constants, an abstract entity like the "brick" concept by R. P. Feynman on something which cannot be devided in smaller parts without leaving the "brick" identity.

There are several theoretical publications which propose a rotating ring, a shell or mass-less particles circulating with the speed of light, or in- and outcoming standing waves, which explain many relevant aspects of the electron like the spin and a diameter to be the Compton wavelength. Several papers since Parson (1) describe models of the ring electron (2) - the "spinning ring". No one of these models, however gives a physical origin of the charge itself.

At very close distances, however, the electron exhibits a much stronger electrical field than during normal observations - seen by the variation of the coupling constant at very high energies. This looks, as if there were a stronger electromagnetic field present than represented by the charge e-. Can the electron be described as circulating purely electromagnetic wave like a "knot of light" similar to that described by Ranada or Irvine& Bouwmeester?

The field of a sine wave has a positive and a negative half wave:

If looked at in space (right side), the underside of the positive field vector has the effect of a negative field per definition (see attraction of the positive test charge). If we let the above wave circulate with an internal twist like a Moebius ribbon in one turn (half sine phase of the field), then the wave turns upside down for the next half phase.

In this Moebius ribbon, the negative half wave stays on the inside during the first revolution. After the internal torsion, the underside of the negative half wave - i.e. the postitively acting part of the second half wave is on the outside of the particle again to give the positron in the above case. If we reverse the polarities, we obtain the electron:

As the field arrives on the other side of the ring with some delay due to the speed of light, the inside field partly compensates itself during one revolution. The excess positive or negative field on the outside then is the origin of the electric charge of the positron or electron, respectively.

The ratio of the field energy responsible for the charge to the total particle rest energy is the dimensionless figure 1/137, which is identical in value and formula to the fine structure or coupling constant. From the spin the electric charge and the electron radius can be calculated.

1) A. L. Parson, “A Magneton Theory of the Structure of the Atom,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, vol. 65, no. 11, Publication No. 2371, pp. 1-80 (Nov. 29, 1915).

(2) H. S. Allen, “The Case for a Ring Electron,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, vol. 31, pp. 49-68 (1919)

For more information see the page

on the Structure of the Electron.


Mass Relation of Leptons and Nucleons - Structure of the Quark (updated 10.01.2016)

One of the other key questions of elementary particles physics is the mass relation between leptons and nucleons, hadrons or quarks, or, more specifically, the relation between the mass of the electron and the proton. Every physicist since decades has wondered about the mass relation between the electron and the proton of 1/1836.

However, leptons in many hadron decays and interactions show a typical energy of 53 MeV. This energy is found for electrons, positrons and even neutrinos which are emitted from decay processes of mesons and from other particle reactions.

The energy of 53 MeV is observed so often that it cannot be a coincidence.

A simple spherical quantum wave is assumed for the quark. Only six individual orbits of these high energy electrons/positrons can be placed in this spherical quark without violating the Pauli Principle.

Three quarks consisting of six of these 53 MeV leptons per quark fit the observed mass and charges of the proton minus a typical binding energy.

3 * 6 * 53 MeV - 2*8 MeV = 938 MeV - qed.

A factor of 53 times the rest energy of the electron also has been calculated 1962 by P. Dirac to be the first excited state with spherical symmetry according to the Bohr-Sommerfeld method of quantization in a classical charged conducting surface. The total energy then should be the sum of electrical and magnetic energy to give a nucleon constituent with 53 MeV. This spherical quantum wave can have eight quadrants in a simple agitated version. The quark is shown to have exactly and only three different variations of this eight quadrant quantum wave, the colours.

For more information see the page

on the Structure of Nucleons and Quarks.


Feedback or contact is appreciated at physics@ccaesar.com

Structure of the Electron -

Correlation of Elementary Charge with Spin in a
Singularity Free Electron Model

This work on the structure of the electron has been submitted to scientific journals in serveral versions.

Find here the submitted papers on the electron, which needs two revolutions to fulfil one full phase - which is the definition of the spin 1/2 itself (!).

Magnetic field of the electron (schematically)

The animation shows one full phase of the positively charged particle, the positron.

(The magnetic field still is wrong in the image and the animation, as the magnetic field lines follow the edge of the ribbon as envelope of induced vortices by the Maxwell equations, but basically the magnetic field lines do pass through the inner side of the ribbon. Thus the consequences and the notation of the electron as nanoscopic rod magnet can be kept - to be updated 11.08.2016). The rim of the Moebius Ribbon is the Hubius Helix - see the similar theory of Dr. Qiu-Hong Hu on the "the nature of the electron" as Hubius Helix - see http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0512/0512265.pdf

This model of the lepton as rotating photon or electromagnetic knot with internal twist does not contradict current models. It provides a physical explanation to the empirical formula of the

fine structure constant alpha.

It is a simple theory explaining the so-called

wave-particle duality

and the equivalence of mass and energy.

Structure of the Quark, Structure of Nucleons and Quarks -

Correlation of Proton Mass with Electron Mass

The work on the composition of the nucleons and quarks has been submitted to a scientific journal, too. Find here the latest version of the submitted paper on the nucleon and quark substructure.

These are the only three versions of the up quark with 2 negative and 6 positive 1/6 charge quadrants to give the +2/3 e- charge:

See animated examples of the down quark with 3 positive and 5 negative 1/6 charge quadrants to give the -1/3 e- charge:

There are only these three versions of the 3:5 quadrants possible - the colours of the d-quark.

Only six different orbits of High Energy Leptons are possible in a quark:

The model of the quark consisting of 6 high energy electrons and positrons with 1/6 th elementary charge does not contradict accepted models, either.

The theories offer a singularity free particle model for leptons and hadrons, as no

point-like particle

is present, but also a "knot of light" .

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